There is probably nothing more confusing than the aspect ratios 4:3 versus 16:9 for projectors and screens. Video comes in many different aspect ratio formats. Material made for regular TV is 4:3 (1.33 / 4 divided by 3 = 1.33), HDTV broadcast is 16:9 (1.78 / 16 divided by 9 = 1.78), movies, music videos, and other content on DVD comes in a variety of formats like 1.33, 1.78, 1.85, 2.00, 2.35, 2.4, 2.5 etc. There is no universal standard for the shape of a video picture.
For general use, there is no perfect solution and both have limitations for which one must compromise
The spatial resolution of a plasma panel, projector or LCD display is measure by the number of pixels (picture elements - dots of colour). This is given as a figure like 853x480 or 1280x720 and describes the actual number of discrete pixels horizontally x vertically.
As a general rule of thumb - the higher the resolution the better, and the longer it will stay current with the existing and next-gen High Definition DVD players and Digital TV broadcasts.
Any device with a vertical resolution of about 576 lines or less is known as a Standard Definition display device. Anything higher is obviously therefore a High Definition device. This is to say a 720p (720 line vertical resolution progressive signal) from a Digital STB displayed on a Standard Def would down-convert the information to the lower resolution of the panel. Send the same signal to a HD panel display and hey presto - you have all the additional detail that was broadcast.
Conversely, sending a Standard Def (or worse - analog TV) to a HD panel display does not mean necessarily a better picture. The quality of the image will depend upon the quality of the video scaler used in the display device.
Nothing too complicated here, this is simply a question of "How black are the blacks and how bright are the whites". Normally the black areas on screen are created by either turning off the pixel (in the case of plasma) or by blocking the light from passing through the pixel (in the case with LCD). Well might you imagine that the absence of glow from a plasma is darker than a bright light being blocked by a thin liquid crystal. Some panels use gloss black lines on the walls between pixels to increase the apparent "blackness" of an off pixel.
Depending on the colour depth of the device, there is also a difference in the number of "steps" between white and black. The greater the colour depth, the more steps, therefore the more subtlety in contrast is available.
It's also worth noting that contrast for front projection depends entirely on the amount of ambient light in the room. Using brighter projectors will never render proper blacks in a daylight or otherwise lit environment. This is why home theatre projection should always be set up in a room that can be properly blacked out.
The Four-Six-Eight Rule -468-
The standard rule of thumb for sizing images is the four-six-eight rule -468-. The farthest viewer should be no more than four, six or eight times the image height away from the screen. Which of the three options depends on the following:
- four times is for material with fine details like CAD drawings or other detailed graphics
- six times is for detailed reading (spreadsheets or text with images)
- eight times is for watching a movie or images
The minimum distance from the projection screen to the first row of seating should be at least 2 times the width of the image size.
The bottom of the screen should be at least 40" to 48" (about 1.2 Meters) above the audience floor, allowing those seated in the rear of the audience to see the screen.
This works for all video aspect ratios: 1.77:1 (16:9) / 1.85:1 / 2.1:1 / 2.35:1.
Screen center should be no more than 20° above the eye level of any viewer.
Diagonal Screen Size:
Because the aspect ratio for video is 4:3, the diagonal produced from those numbers turns out to form a perfect integer relationship: 3 - 4 - 5.
For instance: How large is a 100 inch (diagonal) video screen?
Dividing 100 by 5 equals 20. This multiplied by 3 equals the height of the screen = 60 inch.
Multiply the same 20 by 4 and we get the screen width = 80 inch.
To use a mirror for a rear projection, it must be front-surfaced. Regular glass mirrors have their reflective surface at the back of the glass material. Using this kind of mirror will create double pictures, because the in-beam and the out-beam are not parallel. The light has to go through the glass twice and on the first surface a second reflection will occur.
Front-surface mirrors for projections can be glass and foil mirrors.
Glass mirrors have a reflectivity of about 90% to 95% and foil mirrors have a reflectivity of about 80% to 85%. The glass mirror is perfectly flat but heavy. It can even bend under its own weight. The foil mirror is much, much lighter, can be angled in any way but has not this perfect surface.
Display devices usually have multiple inputs. These can be of any of the basic Scart, composite, component, RGB, DVI, HDMI types of inputs, but the positioning of the inputs may become an issue for installation and ease of control.
Some high end projectors come with an external media box connected to the projector using just one cable (usually requiring a digital HDMI or DVI linkage from the media box to the projector. Optical cable in the case of SIM2). This simplifies the cabling from source and switching devices to the projector's media box In this way source media devices can plug into the media box conveniently located near the rest of the home entertainment equipment. More commonly though all the video inputs are directly on the back of the projector. Composite, S Video, Component RGB DVI HDMI are all frequent acne on the back panels of projectors. Some manufacturers use adaptor plugs to convert from one input to another, this has a disadvantage of limiting the number and type of sources that can be directly connected to the projector.
Composite is the lowest standard of video connection. Normally this is a yellow RCA plug.
S-Video is the next higher quality video connection having much greater bandwidth with the additional conductor cores. S-Video separates colour from brightness and contrast.
Component Video is the highest standard of consumer analog video connection, containing a much greater bandwidth again than S-video, this schema separates colours into Red Green and Blue, much the same way as your eyes do.
As discussed elsewhere in the articles pages, SCART connectors contain all the necessary bi-directional wiring (SCART-SCART cables) to carry left and right audio, composite, S-Video, RGB and control signals. It was designed to be a simple modular system. Also known as the Euro connector for it's prevalence in European devices and markets.
DVI appears to be an interim standard until HDMI really gets off the ground.
HDMI is an all digital end-to-end cable that is designed with security in mind not just quality. It will eventually be the ONLY way to get true high and ultra high definition digital video from the next generation of HD devices. These are modular plug cables and much more difficult to route easily through walls in existing houses.
For projectors Audio Junction strongly recommends the use of broadcast quality Canare cables. These are 5 or 6 core multistranded video hoses. The rubberised outer has a diameter of about 1.6 -2 cm. These multi core cables carry all the conductors to the projector in one cable, simplifying installation immensely as well as improving picture quality and reducing interference.
Special termination tools are required to fir the f-connector or RCA plugs to the ends. This type of cable gives consistently the best results for installation of projectors.
Audio Junction carries a number of different bracket designs in stock at almost all times. Differences between products are not limited to styling and colour, but also on drop height from ceiling, plate mounting, quick release mounts, wall mounting brackets and cable hiding brackets.
During the installation of the projector and the alignment with the screen, the use of some of the setup DVD's available will really speed up the process.
Some of the features on these DVD's include test patters showing borders to align edges and corners of the screen, parallel lines and right angles to ensure the projected image is square and flat. Also colour swatches to are extremely useful for calibrating colour.
LED-backlit LCD television or LED TV is an LCD TV that uses LED backlighting. LED's are used for backlighting, instead of fluorescent lights. Light-emitting diode televisions (LED TVs) are LCD television sets that use LED as back light unit (BLU). LEDs in their current form are much too large to be individual pixels on a conventional television. The use of a true LED display is therefore reserved for much larger screens in sports grounds and other commercial locations.
The LEDs can come in two forms, Dynamic RGB LEDs which are positioned behind the panel, or white Edge-LEDs positioned around the rim of the screen which use a special diffusion panel to spread the light evenly behind the screen.
RGB Dynamic LEDs This method of backlighting allows dimming to occur locally creating specific areas of darkness on the screen. This means you see truer blacks and much higher dynamic contrast ratios.
Edge-LEDs This method of backlighting allows for LED TVs to become extremely thin. The light is diffused across the screen by a special panel which produces a superb uniform colour range across the screen